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We foster citizen empowerment in time of crisis – VoxEurop (English)

In this Op-ed, European Civic Tech actors reaffirm the importance of their role in protecting fundamental rights and providing citizens with the tools to remain in contact with each other, and for collaboration between citizens and decision-makers.

During this time of global health crisis, governments all over the world have taken emergency measures to protect their citizens. While the need to take strong action to contain the epidemic is clear, we, as civic tech experts and citizens must, nevertheless, be aware of the impact that these measures can have on our fundamental rights and freedoms. 

In liberal western democracies, freedom of movement has been significantly curtailed, public gatherings and protests have been prohibited, elections have sometimes been suspended, and in some countries, democratically elected governments have reduced parliamentary oversight.  Some emergency measures are warranted to fight this virus, yet most of them are unprecedented in peacetime for most of us.

Given the context, it is crucial for us as Civic Tech actors to reaffirm the importance of personal liberties and citizen empowerment. Protecting fundamental rights is ever so crucial even during a health crisis of this proportion, including  in democratic countries.

As citizens, we must look for new solutions to effectively protect our rights and display solidarity with our neighbor. We must devote time and attention to helping each other, with a particular focus on vulnerable people, health staff and other essential workers. Turning initiatives borne out of a crisis into new, sustainable ways of delivering public service, engaging in deliberative democracy, or supporting community resilience is going to take work. How to move on from this crisis in a positive direction is a crucial issue for our societies and democratic institutions. 

Civic Tech gives citizens the tools to remain in contact and dialogue with each other and respond to pressing societal issues. It allows for ongoing collaboration between citizens and decision-makers to develop solutions for a better future, helping to strengthen citizen involvement in their communities.

By co-signing this editorial for Citizen Empowerment in Times of Crisis, we emphasize the continued importance of civic engagement, participatory decision-making, and protecting personal freedoms in these difficult times; and for the future.


Axel Dauchez, President & Founder,

Fotis Talantzis, Co-founder & CEO, Novoville

Florent Barre, President & co-founder, Quorum

Cyril Lage, Co-founder & CEO, Cap Collectif

Chloé Pahud, Founder & CEO, Civocracy

Julie de Pimodan, Co-founder & CEO, Fluicity

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The coronavirus crisis opens a new fracture in Europe – VoxEurop (English)

How has the mobility of Europeans evolved with the different measures and degrees of containment to slow the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic? Follow the changes thanks to the application developed by our partners from Civio.

By 15 March, half of the people who regularly walk along the streets of European capitals had vanished. Europe had already recorded around 40,000 confirmed cases of Covid-19. A few days later, the number of people on the streets continued to fall, while the number of those infected kept growing. In the following weeks the number of pedestrians was around 30% of the regular levels. And it has remained that way until now, almost a month and a half later, when we are experiencing a slight resurgence in mobility thanks to confinement measures being relaxed in some countries. On Friday, 17 April, the occupation of European streets rose above 40% of the usual levels for the first time in a month. By then, there were more than 765,000 confirmed cases and more than 76,000 deaths in the European Union.

But this comeback to normal is not homogeneous across Europe. Cities such as Athens, Zagreb, Copenhagen and Berlin have seen an increase in the number of passers-by over the last week. In Madrid, Rome and Paris, with much more restrictive measures, the occupation is still very low, almost always flat and below 20%. As of 17 April, Italy (more than 22,000), Spain (more than 19,000) and France (almost 18,000) are the three EU countries with the highest number of covid-related deaths. The exception: Lisbon, where pedestrian mobility is similar, below 20%, even if the number of deaths in Portugal (657 on 17 April) is far from the figures in Spain, Italy and France.

Other European capitals opted from the very beginning for more lax measures, allowing mobility and keeping shops open. In Stockholm, for example, street pedestrian traffic has rarely fallen below 50% of the usual level. And on 18 April it reached 77%. Something similar happens in Helsinki, which barely went below 50% and was close to 80% on Saturday.

The road traffic levels match almost exactly the patterns seen with pedestrians. The drop in the number of cars on the road has also been drastic, but not as much. The number of vehicles compared to the usual figure in European capitals has been around 40%. But, as with pedestrian mobility, on 18 April we saw the first clear peak in growth in the last month, with Europe-wide levels reaching 45% of normal traffic.

Once again, the difference between Central/Northern Europe and Southern countries is substantial. Traffic in Rome remains at around 20%, as in Athens, Lisbon or Madrid, while Paris stays at 10%. Meanwhile, Copenhagen, Prague and Stockholm are already close to pre-crisis levels, at around 80% of their usual ones. Berlin is getting close to that.

Only one in ten planes flying

Air traffic has experienced the sharpest and most homogeneous fall in the crisis. On 15 March, traffic in the main airports of each country was already below 20% of their usual activity. Nowadays, it doesn’t even reach 10%.

In most cases, the fall in flights happened in the third week of March, between the 15th and 22nd, in line with the Commission’s recommendation which urged all member countries to close their borders, with only some exceptions: residents of the Schengen area travelling home, health workers, cross-border ones, carriers, diplomats, armed forces, or people travelling for humanitarian reasons or “imperative family reasons”. The Commission recommends that these restrictions remain in place until at least 15 May.

In Italy, the first European country to be hit by the coronavirus and the first to implement confinement measures (first regionally, then expanded to the whole country on 9 March), air traffic had already decreased by then, to about 30% in the second week of March, the first week we have data for.

This decline in flights was abrupt in Riga, Bratislava, Nicosia, Warsaw or Madrid. In other European capitals the shift was somewhat milder, with more progressive restrictions, as in Zagreb, Sofia or Dublin. Eventually, almost all European countries followed the recommended border closure. Except Ireland. This is the reason why traffic at Dublin airport is much more progressive and didn’t fall below 30% until 27 March. On that date, Ireland was one of the European countries with the least number of deaths (19) and had just over 1,800 confirmed cases.

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5.2 million more Americans file for unemployment amid COVID-19 crisis

The coronavirus pandemic has forced non-essential businesses to close.

An additional 5.2 million Americans filed for unemployment insurance last week, the U.S. Department of Labor said Thursday.

This brings the total to more than 20 million people who have already applied for unemployment insurance amid the COVID-19 pandemic, as non-essential businesses across the country have been forced to shutter.

This means nearly all the job gains since the 2009 recession have been wiped out in a month.

The adjusted unemployment rate for the week ending April 4 was 8.2%, the DOL said, which “marks the highest level of the seasonally adjusted insured unemployment rate in the history of the seasonally adjusted series.”

The previous high was 7% in May of 1975.

Moody’s Investor Services is forecasting the unemployment rate to spike even higher and “average between 8.8% and 16.2% in the second quarter” as a result of business closures and the scaling back of work.

“Job losses have so far been concentrated in sectors directly impacted by quarantine restrictions,” Moody’s Senior Vice President Robard Williams said in a statement. “However, as shutdowns continue, job losses will likely extend into other areas of the labor market, such as business and professional services where firms may begin to see lower revenues from a second order pull back in demand.”

The rampant unemployment will likely further cut back household spending in the U.S., which already saw a steep decline in March, according to Williams.

Meanwhile, as the unemployment filings skyrocket, many Americans report ongoing struggles in applying for unemployment insurance across the country.

This is a breaking news story. Please check back for updates.

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Calgary company providing trailers throughout North America during COVID-19 crisis – Calgary

A Calgary company says it has received more than 100 requests over the past two weeks to set up field hospitals, quarantine accommodations, testing centres and other temporary structures needed for the COVID-19 pandemic.

“We’ve been getting requests from all jurisdictions in Canada as well as the U.S.,” said Black Diamond Group CEO Trevor Haynes.

One of Black Diamond’s main lines of business is workforce housing in remote locations for natural gas, pipeline, forestry, mining and other industries. It also provides modular trailers that can be used in a variety of ways, such as temporary classrooms or offices.

The offerings have been well-suited for the current crisis and have kept the company busy at a time when other businesses, particularly those in the energy sector, have slowed.

Of the roughly 100 requests it’s received, Black Diamond has been able to move on almost half so far.

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It already has all of the trailers and equipment on hand, which it rents out on a monthly basis.

One typical single-wide trailer unit costs a few hundred dollars a month, not including add-ons like handwashing stations or furniture. Multiple trailers are often attached together to create bigger buildings that can sometimes be two or three storeys high.

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Haynes said it can take just a couple of days to transport and set up basic trailers outside a hospital or health care centre for COVID-19 testing or screening, helping to avoid crowding inside.

“It’s just a matter of relocating them to that site and then getting them connected together and powered up.”

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In the past Black Diamond has put together temporary medical facilities on U.S. military bases while existing hospitals were being refurbished.

READ MORE: SHA to prepare field hospitals in Saskatoon, Regina for coronavirus patients

Now, the company is able to set up such a similar medical building surrounded by temporary living quarters for doctors and nurses as well as quarantine accommodations for patients.

“You can essentially create a field hospital based on the various components that we have in our fleet of assets,” said Haynes.

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A set-up like that would take about seven to 10 days to put together and accommodate 500 to 1,000 people.

Most requests for COVID-19-specific uses are from public health authorities, but Black Diamond has also been talking to U.S. prisons and military installations.

Private companies that provide essential services, such as power, are also asking for temporary buildings to allow for more physical distancing in break rooms, Haynes added.

Black Diamond has experience providing temporary structures to relief workers after natural disasters, including a 1,600-person camp in a northern California community that was ravaged by wildfire in 2018.

“It’s a different reason why the facilities are needed, but the exercise and the use of the asset is very similar,” Haynes said.

“The challenges are continuing to have our crews go out in the field and conduct work. We’ve got to make sure we keep them safe.”

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The company has the means to provide temporary homeless shelters, but Haynes said existing buildings like empty hotels and convention centres would likely work better.

Black Diamond’s core workforce has remained steady during the COVID-19 crisis, and it can always bring on extra contractors as needed.

“It’s exciting to have a way that we can help,” said Haynes. “I think our team is really engaged and working hard to be of assistance wherever they can.”

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© 2020 The Canadian Press

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UN chief says coronavirus ‘worst crisis’ since WWII: Live updates | News

The United Nations chief has warned the coronavirus pandemic presents the world with its “worst crisis” since World War II, with the number of dead in the United States now higher than in China and hard-hit countries in Europe reporting their highest number of deaths in a single day.

The US announced some 800 deaths on Tuesday – bringing the total to more than 3,700. It also has the most confirmed cases. China has reported 3,282 deaths from COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus. 

Spain, the United Kingdom, France and Italy each reported their largest single-day increase in deaths since the start of the pandemic. Some 12,428 people have died from the disease in Italy, the world’s most seriously affected country.


Around the world, nearly 857,000 people have been diagnosed with the virus and at least 178,000 have recovered, according to Johns Hopkins University. More than 42,000 people have died.

I’m Kate Mayberry in Kuala Lumpur with Al Jazeera’s continuing coverage of the coronavirus pandemic.

Here are the latest updates.

Wednesday, April 1 

04:35 GMT – Cluster of infections among medics at hospital in northern Mexico

Some 29 doctors and nurses at a hospital in northern Mexico have been diagnosed with coronavirus, according to a report from Reuters, citing the regional health department.

The outbreak at the government-owned IMSS General Hospital in Monclova in the northern border state of Coahuila is thought to have started when a doctor picked up the virus from a patient at his private practice.

04:30 GMT – Germany reports 5,453 additional cases

Germany’s Robert Koch Institute says the country confirmed an additional 5,453 cases of coronavirus with a further 149 deaths.

The country now has a total of 67,366 cases and 732 fatalities.

04:20 GMT – Taiwan to donate 10 million masks to countries most in need, share expertise

Taiwan’s president Tsai Ing-wen says the country will donate masks and other vital medical supplies to its allies and countries hardest-hit by the coronavirus, and collaborate on developing treatments and vaccines. 

The masks will go to the US, the hardest-hit European countries and Taiwan’s formal diplomatic allies, according to Foreign Minister Joseph Wu.

“Taiwan can help and Taiwan is helping,” he said.

Tsai also said Taiwan is spending the equivalent of $35 billion on measures to support its export-led economy through the crisis.

04:00 GMT – Japan to do ‘whatever is needed’ to control coronavirus

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga told reporters the government would do “whatever is needed” to control the coronavirus, as Prime Minister Shinzo Abe prepared to chair a meeting of his coronavirus task force on Wednesday evening.

Japan Abe

Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe answers a question in the upper house of parliament in Tokyo [Kyodo via Reuters]

Japan has reported some 2,200 cases and 66 deaths. New virus infections in Tokyo rose to a daily record of 78 on Tuesday, for a total of more than 500. Schools have been closed since March 2 and expectations are growing the shutdown will be extended.

03:45 GMT – Reporters Without Borders tracking impact of virus on journalism

Reporters without Borders (RSF) has launched its ‘Tracker 19’ tool to document state censorship, deliberate disinformation and their effect on people’s right to reliable news and information during a global pandemic.

Among its most recent entries are Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro’s attacks on the media, restrictions on the right to inform in Thailand and Turkmenistan’s decision to ban the word ‘coronavirus’.

03:35 GMT – Malaysia tightens lockdown in ‘second phase’

Malaysia is tightening its lockdown, as the so-called Movement Control Order that was originally to have come to an end on March 31 enters its “second phase”.

The Home Ministry says for the next two weeks, public transport will operated only for selected hours in the morning and evening, while private vehicles (including e-hailing services) will be banned from the roads between 10pm (14:00 GMT) and 6am (22:00 GMT).

Malaysia checkpoint

Malaysia has deployed the military to help enforce a nationwide stay-at-home order that remains in force until April 14 [Fazry Ismail/EPA]

02:40 GMT – Taiwan asks people to wear masks when using public transport

Everyone using public transport in Taiwan will need to wear masks from today while people with fevers will not be allowed into stations or airports.

Taiwan has been widely praised for its efforts to curb the virus’ spread on the island. Al Jazeera’s Erin Hale wrote earlier on Taiwan’s approach as well as the difficulties it faces because of its exclusion from the WHO. 

02:20 GMT – US medical stockpile nearly out of protective gear

The US government’s emergency stockpile of medical equipment is nearly run out of protective gear.

Masks, respirators, gloves, gowns and face shields are all in short supply, two officials at the Department of Homeland Security told Reuters.

02:15 GMT – China data delayed; asymptomatic cases to be reported

China’s National Health Commission has yet to release its daily update on coronavirus cases, with asymptomatic cases expected to be added to the tally.

We’ll bring you the numbers once they’re announced.

China Wuhan

People queue to enter a supermarket in Wuhan as life slowly returns to normal [Aly Song/Reuters]

02:00 GMT – Two staff at overseas missions die in US State Dept’s first coronavirus deaths 

Two locally-employed staff at US foreign missions – one in Indonesia and one in the Democratic Republic of Congo – have died of the coronavirus, the State Department said on Tuesday, its first pandemic-related losses among staff.

01:35 GMT – Hong Kong says pet cat tests positive for coronavirus

Hong Kong’s Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department has revealed that a cat has tested positive for the coronavirus – the third pet to do so in the territory.

The short-haired cat was sent for quarantine when its owner tested positive for COVID-19. The animal does not have any sisgns, the department said in a statement on Tuesday. 

Earlier two dogs tested weak positive or positive during repeated tests for the virus.
Hong Kong is urging that pet cats, dogs and other mammals should be quarantined if anyone in the household is confirmed with COVID-19.

00:30 GMT – ‘The President’s Coronavirus Guidelines for America’

US President Donald Trump has just shared on Twitter his ‘Coronavirus Guidelines for America’ after warning the country faced a “very painful” two weeks as it confronts the virus.

The recommendations advise the elderly and those with underlying health conditions to stay at home and urge those feeling sick to stay at home and seek medical attention.

20:50 GMT Tuesday – UN chief: ‘COVID-19 worst crisis since WWII’

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has warned the coronavirus pandemic is the most serious crisis facing the world since World War II, threatening people in every country and carrying the risk of “enhanced instability, enhanced unrest, and enhanced conflict.”

The UN chief was speaking at the launch of a report on the socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19.

Read all the updates from yesterday (March 31) here.

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Coronavirus: Family share story of love as hospice faces crisis

Kate and Paddy SloanImage copyright

Image caption

Kate and Paddy Sloan have been together for 35 years

In this world where families send their love through glass divides and locked doors, due to coronavirus, a virtual hug has to be good enough.

Now a family from Northern Ireland are sharing their story, in a bid to boost emergency funds for Marie Curie.

It is one of the biggest charities caring for terminally-ill patients in Northern Ireland.

But it has said it is deeply concerned about the impact coronavirus restrictions will have on its fundraising efforts.

The charity is backing an urgent appeal to the chancellor for financial support.

The toughest part

Kate Sloan, 64, has cancer and is currently in the Marie Curie Hospice in Belfast.

She and her husband, Paddy, from Loughinisland, County Down, have been together for 35 years.

Coronavirus has been the toughest part of their hospice journey, said Paddy.

Image copyright

Image caption

Kate Sloan’s family reached out to her through glass on Mother’s Day

When coronavirus meant their children and grandchildren would be unable to hug Kate on Mother’s Day, they figured out a way to be there for her – no matter what.

“They just want to see their mummy and nanny, however, they know that what they’re doing by distancing themselves is vital to the health of Kate and other patients,” he said.

But on Mother’s Day, they made “an amazing effort” to make it special.

‘Part of the family’

“Our son, Aidan, and his wife brought their four children down to see their nanny – and although it was looking through a window holding up a ‘Happy Mother’s Day’ sign, it most definitely helped make the day that much easier.

“Our daughter, Roisin, also arrived with a little bag of essentials, waving and smiling through the window, and even that little bit of interaction put a big smile on Kate’s face,” he said.

“It’s difficult, and with present circumstances I know that not being able to hug their mum, or just sit at her bedside and hold her hand, is hard on them but they are glad the facilities at the hospice have enabled me to stay with her and be here for her.”

Mr Sloan said Marie Curie had become “an extension of our family” and were there not only for Kate, but for all of them.

“Due to her illness, Kate is unable to eat or speak, but that hasn’t stopped her personality shining through and the care from the Marie Curie nurses has been so good.

“As I’m able to stay with Kate overnight there is no need for me to leave her side, which is the only place I want to be.”

‘Devastating loss of income’

The network of Marie Curie hospices and community nurses rely on donations to cover the £200,000-a-week running costs.

But its ability to generate this money has been seriously compromised by the pandemic.

It is backing an urgent appeal to the chancellor for financial support.

“We are facing a devastating loss of income,” said Ciara Gallagher, head of partnerships and philanthropy.

Image caption

Marie Curie is one of the biggest charities caring for terminally ill patients in Northern Ireland

She said the charity has had to make “tough decisions locally” to postpone and cancel a number of fundraising events.

“We estimate this will be a loss of approximately £350,000 from these events alone,” she added.

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Tokyo is tone deaf on staging Olympics during coronavirus crisis

If there was a guarantee that Tokyo could host in an environment that was safe and virus-free this summer or this fall (October is probably the latest viable window), then by all means use the power of the Olympic movement to celebrate the containment of COVID-19.

Yet without that guarantee, Olympic organizers are defying all logic by insisting that there will be an opening ceremonies on Friday, July 24.

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Bollywood’s Rani Mukerji wants women to protect themselves amid devastating rape crisis

Rani Mukerji is hoping new Bollywood film Mardaani 2 sparks a huge change in India, amid a devastating rape crisis.

In the sequel – which is released in cinemas on 13 December, the 41-year-old reprises her role as police officer Shivani – who attempts to hunt down a young serial killer, targeting young women, brutally raping and murdering them.

The movie comes after similar crimes have been devastating India, with reports of young girls being raped making worldwide news on a weekly basis.

And, speaking to about the film, Rani hopes that it will encourage women to protect themselves from attackers, by learning ‘self-defence’.

‘The most important change I would like to see is that women use their platforms to talk about what we can do, and how we can learn certain self-defence tricks to be able to protect them from difficult situations,’ she told us.

‘We need to accept that we are facing this reality today, which is horrendous and scary, but it’s the reality today so we have to deal with it, and face it with a lot of courage.

Rani is starring in Mardaani 2 (Picture: Yash Raj Films)

‘I think that’s the change I’m looking for.

‘There are people in power who can learn something, and become part of the discussion, that would be mean so much to me as an actor. At the end of the day I’m a woman, and these things do bother me. How do you talk to the nation and tell them to be aware?’

Rani has come under fire for similar comments in the past, following a round-table discussion with her fellow Bollywood actresses.

During the chat, she again suggested young girls should learn self-defence as a method of protection, with Deepika Padukone arguing that it shouldn’t even ‘get to that stage.

Rani hopes the film opens up a discussion on rape (Picture: Yash Raj Films)

Fans were unhappy with Rani’s words, explaining that women shouldn’t be the ones to change.

But the Kuch Kuch Hota Hai actress is adamant that women should not be ‘caught’ in that situation, and hopes to show females that they also have ‘power’ in scary situations.

‘Shivani’s character is the true embodiment of women empowerment,’ she continued. ‘When women and girls see her, they get empowered.

‘When you’re talking about victims, you always think a woman is a victim, but women have the power as well.

Rani insisted men will also feel empowered while watching Mardaani 2 (Picture: Yash Raj Films)

‘We have to start the conversation with every woman so that she’s not caught in a situation like that.’

And she also insists that men will also feel empowered while watching Mardaani 2 – which shows a strong female hunting down a violent rapist, reiterating that not all men are capable of the horrific crimes portrayed.

‘Men will take the same message,’ she said. ‘I don’t think, as a community, that all men are the perpetrators of the crime.

‘There are a lot of men who stand for women’s rights and empowerment, a lot of men who are disgusted when crimes like this happen, so I’m sure men will also appreciate the talk about empowering themselves.

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‘Men will equally be very proud of the fact that women are being empowered.’

And she is thrilled the film is starting a conversation that should have been sparked a long, long time ago.

‘[The reaction] has been very, very positive. People are reacting to it very emotionally. It’s sparking a conversation, which is really powerful,’ she added.

‘This is the conversation we should be having.’

Mardaani 2 is released in cinemas on 13 December.

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The climate crisis Trump ignores the most

Scanning his record of remarks about climate change, Bump concluded that Trump “may not actually understand the mechanism that is warming the planet” and that he routinely conflates the concerns of environmentalism, writ large, with concerns over carbon emissions warming the planet. (Never mind, of course, that his administration has set about gutting environmental protections and regulations, as well.) “Trump’s suggestion that clean air and clean water are ‘a big part of climate change’ is accurate only with a remarkably generous interpretation of his comments,” Bump noted.

“Congress’s commitment to action on the climate crisis is iron-clad,” Pelosi said in a statement. “This is a matter of public health … of our children, of the survival of our economies, of the prosperity of the world, of national security, justice and equality. We now must deliver deeper cuts in emissions.”

The apocalyptic warnings are once more being sounded in Madrid. U.N. Secretary-General António Guterres scolded the world’s major economies for their “utterly inadequate” steps in reducing emissions and declared over the weekend that humanity faced a “point of no return,” a warning that echoed a recent U.N. report that called for dramatic and drastic action by governments. According to the report, global greenhouse gas emissions need to start falling by 7.6 percent each year starting next year — a rate that’s nowhere in sight, not least because of a lack of White House leadership on climate.

In the meantime, international organizations are calling attention to climate change’s many victims. The humanitarian group Oxfam calculated that, on average, more than 20 million people were displaced by extreme weather events each year of the past decade. “Today, you are seven times more likely to be internally displaced by cyclones, floods and wildfires than by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and three times more likely than by conflict,” Oxfam said in a report published this week.

Whatever the case, it is already apparent that a changing climate is stoking more extreme weather patterns, which in turn are displacing or crippling countless vulnerable communities around the world. A study by Save the Children concluded that, in east and southern Africa this year, floods, landslides, drought and cyclones contributed “to at least 33 million people in the region — or 10% of the population across ten countries — being at emergency levels of food insecurity or worse.” That includes more than 16 million children.

Environmental and development groups are hoping to push wealthier countries to build a fund that can support poorer nations afflicted by climate disaster. But, in an era of climate crisis, many communities may need wholesale resettlement. Drought and shifts in weather have fomented migration crises from Syria to Central America. Recognizing this, House Democrats put forward legislation that would create a federal program that would take in a minimum of 50,000 climate refugees every year in the United States.

It’s a bill that will never pass under Trump, who has reduced U.S. refugee resettlement to record-low levels and even thwarted temporary protected status for citizens of the Bahamas fleeing the ravages of Hurricane Dorian this year. Given the Trump administration’s hostility to migrants and skepticism of climate change, there may be no more forlorn a plight than that of a climate refugee.

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